In older buildings, the foundations and basement walls are constructed of brickwork, typically using hard-burnt bricks and (frequently) hydraulic mortar. Depending on local conditions, foundations may consist wholly or partially of natural stone (boulders). Where necessitated by ground conditions, foundations are laid on grillage foundations or piles.
Towards the end of the 1800s, problems with rising ground moisture were increasingly avoided by inserting a damp-proof layer (membrane), both between the foundations and basement walls and over the ground between the basement wall and exterior wall/facade.
Recommended literature in Danish:
A. Thortsen: Lærebog i Fundering (1890)